Work rights during studies
International students studying in the USA on F-1 status visa are eligible to work on campus up to 20 hours a week while school is in session, and can work full time during vacations / scheduled breaks. Students are eligible to begin employment immediately upon being admitted to the United States in F-1 status.
Work rights for your spouse
The spouse of a student cannot work if they have travelled to the USA on a dependent visa. If seeking employment, the appropriate work visa will be required.
For more information visit: http://www.ustraveldocs.com/in/in-niv-typefandm.asp#dependents